"I cannot teach anybody anything. I can only make them think." ~Socrates
My favorite class days tend to be those during which the students engage in discussions. While I've tried a wide variety of Socratic discussions, I will focus today on how to start using them if you're trying them out for the first time or looking for new ways to approach discussion. Socratic discussions can feel terrifying for teachers because there are a wide range of uncontrollable variables. However, I would argue that end results are always worth the initial trepidation that both the teacher and the students might feel. These kinds of discussions lead to a rich form of learning as the students guide one another (and themselves) toward discovery of new ideas and beliefs. They are truly in charge of their own learning, and they often discover that they have their own thoughts and voice, and that others both respect and value their opinions.
When first beginning, it is best to give clear guidelines and structure. Students do better when they prepare for the discussion ahead of time and when the discussion is rooted in the close reading of a text that they have all read and understand.
They also need to know what is expected. I usually ask them to comment at least three times with meaningful contributions (with a cutoff on the max number of contributions as well--usually 6 times). When they are generating the questions, I require that they each ask at least two questions. I have seen teachers use different ways to help students gauge their discussion--I just have them keep a tally on their paper, but some students use beans or cards or other methods to help students count down the number of things they need to do.
We always sit in a circle for these discussions. When possible, we go to a different space (the library for example) so that it feels more formal and breaks up the routine of class. When we participate as a whole class (which seems to work best, at least until students get the hang of these kinds of discussions), I take notes on what everyone says. I let a student facilitate the discussion.
We have a Socratic discussion at least once per major work that we read. For example, for Romeo and Juliet this year, I used Dana Huff's idea of focusing the discussion around the question "Who is most responsible for the deaths of Romeo and Juliet?" When preparing for that unit, I only read through her information on teaching Romeo and Juliet, but on her site she has other great information about Socratic seminars and ways to use them in class. For other ideas on teaching Romeo and Juliet, refer to my previous post.
For Of Mice and Men, the students first participated in online discussions using schoology.com, and then we used those questions as a starting point for the verbal discussion. They moved from those questions (for which they had already prepared answers) to their own questions about the text.
In our most recent unit on Night, we actually had two Socratic discussions. The first was shortly after they watched the Class Divided documentary (see the previous post for comments on this activity). For that discussion, the students silently answered a series of questions addressing tolerance and discrimination. A few students who finished the reading for the day early wrote down the questions on big paper and we posted them around the room. Students wrote their responses and contemplated the issues before having the discussion. The second discussion focused on the memoir itself, and the students generated their own questions for that discussion. They began by discussing three questions I had asked them ahead of time, and from there they asked their own questions related to the text. For the second discussion, I broke each class into two smaller groups and had a scribe and facilitator for each group. This was remarkably successful in most classes.
If the students are going to create their own questions, they need models and guidelines. They will typically begin with plot-based questions that can be answered directly by the plot events. Once they begin to understand that the best questions will not have a single answer nor will they be something that can be right or wrong, they will start formulating questions that lead to better discussions. Through their creation of questions, they will make their own inferences about the text and will require their fellow students to make inferences as well. I always encourage them to create at least 5 questions of their own prior to the discussion since there are often duplicates, and if there is a significant lull during the conversation, I prompt them to pause and create one new question that they are willing to posit to the group.
Another vital part of these activities is self-reflection and self-evaluation. After each discussion, I ask students to thoughtfully reflect on their participation. I have them give themselves a score from 1 to 10 with a justification. (As an aside, I use self-evaluation frequently and find it to be helpful with many activities. I do guide them on how to score themselves, so in this case, I remind them that a 1 equates to a 10%, and that the only people who deserve a 1 would be those students who are passed out on their desks, drooling. One of the benefits of this kind of activity is that no one is completely disengaged--no one deserves that low of a score. I tell them that a 10 means that they were focused the entire time on what everyone said, and that they spoke neither too little nor too much. I know teachers are often reluctant to let students self-evaluate, but I find that their scores often reflect mine, and that if they are different, the students are often harsher on themselves.) In their reflection, I also ask them to comment on what they did well and what they could do to improve. I also ask them to write about what they learned from others throughout their discussion (what comments were most salient and/or impacted the way that they view the issue discussed or the world).
Students love these discussions, and they always leave them feeling energized and interested. They are a way for me to recharge as well, since students often say the exact things that we as educators long for them to think and say, and they come about those discoveries on their own. I also love the way they look out for each other and encourage each other to speak and participate (which becomes a more prominent feature of the discussions each time we have them). They are a wonderful way to have a cumulative assessment in addition to the written assessments we traditionally give, and they are a good way to let students demonstrate what they know about a text if the written assessment uses cold readings and application of skills.
What are you doing in your classrooms? Please leave comments here and share your ideas!
While I intend to focus primarily on contemporary YA lit and how to use it in the classroom, it’s been “much upon my mind that I ought to tell…the whole truth,” (things I remember from my own high school experience: Dickens’ Great Expectations) and the truth is that in class, I’ve been teaching Romeo and Juliet. Couldn’t get more classic, less contemporary, could we?
Because of its canonical aspects and the language barrier, I approached the unit with trepidation. While I’ve taught many of Shakespeare’s plays, I have rarely taught freshmen and had not yet come across this particular task.
I have no use for beating difficult texts over students’ heads (metaphorically, of course—I feel obligated to highlight that I do not promote abuse). I certainly have done my share of suffering when teaching texts that students did not enjoy (A failed attempt at The Crucible comes to mind, as do the early parts of years when I taught American lit as a chronological survey course). While I love teaching Hamlet to seniors, I found the thought of Romeo and Juliet with freshmen intimidating. I believe in instilling the love of literature and of learning in the hearts and minds of kids, and I believe that some texts invite that possibility more than others.
So I did what I do when I am anxious—I researched (which, as a random aside, is a terrible plan when it comes to things like medical concerns, but which works quite well for conquering fears over teaching certain texts). I came across lots of mediocre ideas and some stellar ones as well. I used one of John Green's amazing Crash Course videos (see youtube link here) to get the students interested and give them some helpful background information. For other engaging activities during the unit, I relied especially heavily on Dana Huff’s posts (on www.huffenglish.com). I was most excited by her ideas about pairing scenes from the Zeffirelli version of the film (1968) with the Luhrmann version of the film (1996). Many of the students are visual learners, and all of them are better equipped to interpret and analyze film, so those activities have been amazingly successful. They made great notes, had good discussions, and wrote strong essays. The films bring out so much of the power within the writing and the story. I watched Luhrmann’s version of Act V scene iii five times. This is the testament to the power of interpretation: I felt a shiver of chills every time Romeo took the poison and felt Juliet’s hand. I’m not easily moved, but I cringed (as did every student watching) as Romeo discovered the horrifying truth.
The unit has been much more successful than I expected. They have become much better at paraphrasing, have made tremendous progress with reading, and have managed to push through the difficult language and into the complex issues that the story itself presents. With the recent epidemic of star-crossed lovers in awesome YA lit novels, the story feels remarkably relevant and even exciting. (If any teachers want to contact me for additional ideas or resources for Romeo and Juliet, please feel free to do so on the contact page or through twitter.)
And so I look toward next year’s Fate and Choice unit with excitement instead of dread. I keep thinking of all the things I can change and add. I used a small excerpt from John Green’s The Fault in our Stars (a phenomenal novel! A review of this will come at some point, I’m sure, but at this moment suffice it to say that I highly recommend it) this year to help students understand the term star-crossed, but I’m excited about the notion of introducing more pairings next year. I just read Warm Bodies by Isaac Marion (which is exquisitely written and includes a delightful balance between the crude nature of zombies and the irrepressible force of love), and I’m fantasizing about fun pairings between balcony scenes and other aspects of the two texts. Whether it’s gnomes (I have full intentions of using some aspect of the movie Gnomeo and Juliet), zombies, or terminally-ill teens, the power of this trope resonates throughout our world.
As R. says in Warm Bodies: “In my mind I am eloquent; I can climb intricate scaffolds of words to reach the highest cathedral ceilings and paint my thoughts. But when I open my mouth, everything collapses.”
K. Ashley Dickson-Ellison is a former high school English teacher (who is now an instructional technology teacher) interested in exploring the integration of trending young adult literature into the English classroom experience. Ashley is also a member of the podcast Unabridged; check out the podcast site below.
Please note: All ideas and opinions are my own and do not represent my current or past employers.
© K. Ashley Dickson and Teaching the Apocalypse 2019. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without written permission from this blog’s author is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to K. Ashley Dickson and Teaching the Apocalypse with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. All thoughts and ideas are the author's and do not represent any employer.